Sunday, May 11, 2008

EW facades filtering and expression [rad. and light analysis]

A final simulation series is done to incorporate daylight filtering of the east and west facades, to differentiate the large simple facade and create a scale relation to the surroundings and visitors. A cumulative analysis is first simulated to detect any glare zones. As these hardly are present, as prior argumented, due to orientation and surrounding buildings, placement of the filter (louvers) can be done in the few zones with slight higher radiation and through the effect of internal enclosure. Louvers are chosen to create a layer between the internal and external zones, with removing the expression of an open continues building.

Building flow

Movement through the house is organised via narrative paths, taking the visitor through different environments as prior described. Upward movement is represented by the red path and downward movement by the green path. As visitors of libraries search different materials, the length of the movement will be in respect to the subjects searched. The full way to the cafe on level 4 is a 240m path, whereas the downward is a 150m path. Those who wish faster vertical movement are facilitated by an elevator in entrance area. 

Monday, May 5, 2008

Plan sections [preliminary]

Each plan section illustrates diversity in programmatic content with the conceptual idea of keeping studios and bookshelves towards the core. As thermal mass needs to be exposed to direct solar energy, are parts of the studio spaces moved towards the envelope. Movement is created through passages, openings and with view towards the context and the atria. The drawings are in process.

Level 00 and context





Saturday, May 3, 2008

Longitudinal sections [preliminary]

The longitudinal sections illustrates a tall entrance zone for reception and exhibitions (left side of section) and a storage space (right side level 0), functional flat levels and cafe a the public rooftop. The east and west facades are streamlined to the surrounding context and city flow and to people from the outside view into the vibrant library. The building bridge in this way the two sides of the placa, from the market to the existing library and creates a gate between the two new public outdoor spaces - the placa (former parking) and the garden created behind the building. (The drawings are in process) 

section CC

section BB

section AA

Shade differentiation [daylight simulation]

A last simulation series is done with focus on colour differentiation and the effect. The building is simulated with full panels, to keep maximum structural strength within the system. Two iterations are done with white roof and black roof (good reflector or good absorber), to detect the differences in light levels. The white roof performs naturally better (see right ill. row for each type as the interpolation goes from 0-20% to define more clearly the differences), but absorbs equally worse in collecting energy from the sun. A new simulation of cumulative radiation is done to determine precisely where energy can be collected most efficiently. The two rows of ill. to the right show the optimum combination of black (absorbing) grey (absorbing and reflecting) and white (reflecting) panels in order to keep high interior daylight factors and actively take use of the solar energy through solar thin films placement. The final simulation shows furthermore daylight factors ranging between 3 and 70 from the darkest places to the location near the envelope. Panels can thereby be removed accordingly to wanted increase in daylight in some zones or to direct views.

Library in its context

The library in context. Mercat La Boqueria to the right and the existing library and municipality building to the top left. Trees are placed to create sunny and shaded areas, allowing the northern wind to blow through the placa and to follow the design derived from the spanish landscape.

Placa design

The landscape north of Barcelona serve as design inspiration for the Placa in front of the library. The pattern continues underneath the building to the garden and becomes the foundation for the building. The red zones frame grass areas elevated from ground and the green circles marks the placement of trees. They together create an urban landscape, cooling the air slightly before entering the building in summer with the northern wind. 

Monday, April 28, 2008

Ligth and spaces

A well lit library with reflected, diffuse daylight and direct sunlight is created through spatial organisation of weaving plans, allowing different zones, different view and different expressions.

Left ill. from level 5 to level 4. View towards the square through the opening to the left, towards the underlying level and the studios to the right. Right ill. Open space for bookshelves, open study and meeting. Atrium space to the right.

Left ill. Level 5, space for bookshelves, open study and meeting. View through the open envelope to the placa and to the atrium. Right ill. Level 5, Cafe area with direct sunligth and view to garden, market and the surrounding city.

Left ill. View through the open east facade, into the weaving library. Right ill. View from west atrium towards the roof.

Structural membrane elements

The structural membrane, after remodeling, with the aim described below includes 4 elements 1) Structural space grid (black) , 2) cross plane reflector (yellow colour), 3) inner membrane (green) and 4) outer membrane. They together frame the library as an informed system towards sustainable performance, in correspondance with the plan layout.

Manufacturing considerations

As the digital environment is unrestricted from geometrical constructions, it is important to transform the generated model to a buildable model. This is done in two steps. 1) A gaussian analysis (which determine the curvature of the panels in the envelope) is done to analyse a possible complexity level in cause of realisation and by that to minimise extreme warped surfaces. What is of most interest is the centre ill. showing the panels between the membranes, as they will need to be bended or be replaced by another material (the membrane takes no effect of a highly bended surface plane). The place with blue indicates high curvature to which a geometrical or material change is nessecary.

2) The ill. below to the left show the envelope geometry in plan from generative component. This has many irregular/non-parallel lines, which have been re-modeled to straigth lines, ill. right. This minimise possible construction errors and manufacturing costs and ensure vertical structural load lines .

Tuesday, April 22, 2008

Daylight performance simulations 02

As a respond to prior daylight simulations, the aperture of the local system is altered as well as series of global formations, changing conditions upon how light falls into the building. This has enlarged the atrium space to the east, kept a height to depth ratio of app. 1:2 with improved factors as result. Three simulations with diverse panel organisation is done to recognise light levels and light effects. 01) symmetrical pattern in chess board organisation 02) with slightly more opaque than transparent panels and 03) with irregular pattern organisation, but in relation to internal programme. All three simulations reveal daylight factors from 2% in the darkest areas to 60% near the envelope. The colour charts look simular (as with daylight performance simulation 01), but have slight differences, with panel organisation 03 as the best with the idea of controlling light levels in different zones of the building. The organisation of panels will be done in a more precise iteration of spatial aspects with thought to phenomenological perspectives of light and shade.  

Local system III [cumulative radiation/thermal mass 02]

Alteration of the parametric input controlling aperture throughout the envelope has created improved internal absorption of energy. This is done in relation with changes in the internal organisation. The pure yellow indication on the right illustration (summer period) is misinformation to the reader as the open air cafe is located here, exposing the thermal mass to the outside, with little effect to internal temperature changes. Colour schemes/designs and material application will follow the information derived from the simulation/analysis, which will be illustrated in forthcoming spatial illustrations.   

Sunday, April 13, 2008

Internal/External [global formation]

The parametric model is rebuilt with the concept of an environmental and structural system, responding to form change in the global system. The internal organisation is associated with the envelope formation, which ensures direct design linkage between form study, performance study and spatial studies. The system has been altered to present 3 different layout maintaining the ideas developed in the topology study (the garden, the flow under the building and the stretching towards the square). Formation 3 is oriented towards improving these ideas through a more narrow enclosure of the garden space,  smaller use of the square space without loosing the feeling of stretching towards it. The formation of the building focuses to the same degree of improving internal conditions through the enlarged atrium to the east (better conditions for natural light and thermal buoyancy) and through an improvement of aperture (envelope porousity). The parametric/associative relations developed are also seen to improve the use of thermal mass. This will be analysed in the next steps.

Parametric/associative construct of environmental and structural relations

The global formations seek to improve internal and external spaces.  

Saturday, April 12, 2008


A resulting weaving expression is created from an internal and external position, reflecting the dynamic elements which it has been in-formed by. The dynamic and vibrant expression of both interior and exterior is seen to mirror the location of the library in cultural and multi-ethnic Raval in the centre of Barcelona. It thereby seeks to contribute and continue the local atmosphere in which its is implanted.   

Spatial organisation 05 [programmatic organisation]

A weaving programmatic layout is organised through the prior described spatial relations, locations and sizes. Studio spaces and book shelves weave in the inner part of the library, embrased by connectors and open spaces, contradicting the 'heavy' core in its function and expression. Following the paths guides the visitor in a vertical and horizontal movement, through enclosed environments to open spaces, from the inner to the outer places of the building. This movement allow for a series of different intimacies according to location within the house, as the visitor experience the open view and space towards the north (Pl. Gardunya), the enclosed vertical space (the two atria) and an outer narrow and intimate space to the south (garden). This movement is recognised in the surrounding Gothic Quarter, in the shift between narrow streets and open plazas, changing light conditions, enclosure, opening, tempo and mood. Book shelves contribute to the organisation to slow down movement in the open study spaces and to direct the view towards the placa and the garden.    

Sunday, April 6, 2008

Daylight study from physical component 01

A prototype model of two joint components is made to investigate the penetration of light through a narrow aperture in diverse angled positions. The study is done with northern daylight (and plywood for correct material reflection of the light) to see the effect of a possible application on the north facing elevation and the consequent daylight effect.  

Daylight performance simulations 01

A study of interior light conditions based on natural light is investigated. Ten different iterations are done divided into two seasons, summer and winter. From left, 1) opaque material 2) transparent material 3) translucent material 4) transparent and opaque material 5) transparent, opaque and translucent material. The physical properties used in the simulations are based on the data illustrated at the Vector Foiltec website for an accurate simulation base. Each iteration is containing data of a 3-dimensional point cloud inside the building envelope. To clarify the data, three levels are chosen for illustration revealing little difference between the simulations despite of material change. This can be caused by little difference in light levels due to the dense city environment from the south, east and west, creating many shaded hours on large part of the building facade or due to a well-functioning reflective system, which equalise the intake of light throughout the year. Though the colour chart of the simulations seems identical (to some degree) reading the data reveal diffrentiation in outcome of the different material choses. A combination of opaque, transparent and translucent material properties seem to have effect on the southern side to differ intake of direct sun in specific areas, whereas transparent or translucent properties are more adequate on the northern, eastern and western sides as little direct sunlight occurs within operational hours. Light levels and the distribution of light through the western atrium is very good, where as the eastern can be improved by either directing more light through the envelope via an alteration of the parameters in the local system03 or as a result of widening the atrium space.

Monday, March 31, 2008

1/200 Model [Local System III]

The model illustrates local and global system joint in physicality to investigate scale, relations, spaces and materials outside the digital domain. The model is missing panelisation on the sides and the second layer of the structural/environmental component. 

Local system III [cumulative radiation/thermal mass]

One of the strategies implemented into the pre-solution local system III, was the idea of exposing thermal mass in winter periods, controlled by the parametric input. The illustrations show the two strings located underneath the envelope of the building in red colour (ill. to the left) and two simulation illustrations showing cumulative radiation onto thermal mass in winter periods (centre ill.) and cumulative radiation in summer periods (right ill.). The informed pre-solution based on heuristics show a clear use in conceptual form finding processes towards optimisation through a first generation of simulation iterations. To further improve the performance of the differentiated environmental input in relation to season an alteration of the parametric set-up will be done.

Local system III [cumulative radiation on surface]

The system design is simulated in Ecotect for cumulative properties of the surface area to investigate potentials for location of photovoltaic thin films, location of absorbing materials, reflectors and orientations of system generations (reflectors incorporated in the system). The graphs shows two simulations in the summer period and in the winter period, to which a similar radiation occur in located cumulation, but large difference in values. Each panels has a minimum of 1 data set, which can be analysed and informed into the parametric model for optimisation. The aim is thereby to registre possible energy gains through solar exposure on the outer surface of the building. A strategy of lowering the cumulative radiation would equally inform the parametric model towards a lowered exposure degree towards the southern summer sun.

Winter period (november-february)

Summer period (may-august)

Monday, March 24, 2008

Spatial organisation 04 [interior]

Interior view and movement through open and enclosed environments, with diversity in orientation, density, view, privacy and communication to inside and outside of the house.

Along a series of book shelves with studio and offices crossing from one string to the other above. And the atrium space to the right.

Book shelves to the right, closing the space of from the atrium and directing the view outward towards the square through the diverse transparencies in the building envelope (materials not applied, which then create and opaque surface to the left.) Movement via the ramps along the envelope, creating view points in various positions. 

View from interior atrium towards centre of the library and through the roof construction.

Sunday, March 23, 2008

Global I + Local III + Spatial organisation 04

Local system 03 applied to global system with interior spatial organisation. Application of the 3 constructs are controlled by the interior requirements of daylight and thermal properties (based on heuristics in pre-solutions). The joining of the global-local system and spatial organisation is then ready for optimisation and design development/iterations through simulations to inform parametric alteration.

Top view

Elevation from south (garden). The global system is in this illustrations only partial deformed to follow the interior movement, which cause the red solid to exit the 'boundary' of the envelope.

Opening allowing winter sunlight to penetrate the envelope, storing thermal energy.

Differentiated daylight and thermal zones through differentiation in the local system and global system formation.

Local system III [conceptual/parametric diagramme]

Local system03 is designed with the idea of combining sustainable strategies and structural concepts from the beginning (local system 01 and 02 has mostly focused on sustainable strategies) and to simplify the complex structural cross-bar system without loosing novel strategies. The system is one design scheme but divided into 3 constructs, which each has a variable functioning as a controlled gradient. Each system is applied to specific zones according to structural load (based on heuristics) and thermal/solar requirements (as investigated in exp.02 and exp.03). The system is constructed from a double frame (spatial frame) which is 'cladded' with ETFE material, creating a thermal pocket (as local system01 and 02). The pocket is divided into 2 spaces through a surface which is used as solar reflector or shield according to season due to varying solar paths. It thus reflects daylight into the building during summer and allow direct sunlight in winter in zones which absorb the solar energy (the red solids - enclosed spaces) located just underneath the building envelope. The system is also seen to advance thermal buoyancy through an intake of the prevailing wind from north in the centre bottom and an outlet via the atria in the top of the building and to improve insulation values as the larger distance between the 2 frames, the better insulation value. Structural load-bearing is controlled in gradients as the double frame grows larger as prior investigated, which is then further strengthened by the reflecting surface creating a triangulated system. Structural differentiation can be obtained further by the material properties of the triangulation system.